At the same time, scholars and arbitrators have noted that treaties diverge in their individual wording. The two sides of the heat map above and below that line are symmetric. Black quadrangles are the borders of individual country treaty networks. Within parties, the treaties are always sorted by date of signature. In addition to that, we've identified clusters of similar treaties. Ph.D. at the Graduate Institute and JSM at Stanford Law School, Wolfgang worked for the Institute's International Law Department as Professor Joost Pauwelyn's research and teaching assistant. The TPP investment chapter, in line with the U.S. approach since the nineties, does nothing to promote sustainable investment, to combat corruption, or subject investors to responsible behaviour. EU, where the parliament has ordered the European Commission to do away with investment arbitration, leading the Commission’s head of trade, Cecilia Malmstrom, to call for the creation of an investment court. It also stands in contrast with the developments over the past 3-5 years in emerging and developing economies. States in Southern Africa, India and Indonesia, have adopted models that more effectively protect policy space, and seek to promote environmentally and socially conscious investment. These countries have also brought more balance into the rules, introducing obligations not only for host states but also for companies. TPP parties—clearly led by the US—have largely ignored these developments aimed at re-balancing and reforming. Philip Morris against measures taken by states to reduce smoking and related health problems and costs. Tobacco Control Measures clause in its Exception Chapter, allowing states to deny investors the right to initiate arbitrations against them relating to claims challenging tobacco control measures, and even to deny the rights during the arbitral proceedings. The U.S. approach is taken with respect to investor protection as well as liberalization through National Treatment (NT) and Most-Favored-Nation Treatment (MFN) provisions.